Login and authentication is the basic and important function in almost all websites. I will just give a summary of my research and how login and authentication is done in JAVA and PHP.
By using Spring Securities and Spring MVC jars ( by using Maven or downloading the jar files from the internet ), Website login can be easily created by following tutorial instructions. The basic tutorial with authentication can be created in just one day ( according to my experience ). SQL authentication is not yet included from the basic, but can be easily added. Knowledge of Spring MVC and Servlet Filters are also needed to understand the concept.
Spring Security tutorials by Mkyong
The basic Spring Security example
I also researched on how to this in PHP, and saw results with core PHP and another using Laravel. PHP is known to have very unstable and messy code ( which is why maintainability is an issue ). But with Laravel Framework, PHP code is improved.
PHP hardcode using MYSQL database for secure login
PHP authentication using Laravel
Laravel features discussed including login and authentication
PHP and JAVA codes are very different in syntax and implementation, and both languages has its advantage and disadvantage.